The effect of the lactate on the innate immune cells
In this study, the effect of PLGA microparticles (MPs) on the maturation status of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs), the primary initiators of adaptive immunity, is investigated to decipher the immunomodulatory properties of this biomaterial. Treatment of bone marrow-derived DCs from C57BL/6 mice with PLGA MPs led to a time dependent decrease in the maturation level of these cells, as quantified by decreased expression of the positive stimulatory molecules MHCII, CD80, and CD86 as well as the ability to resist maturation following challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These phenomena were correlated to an increase in lactic acid both intracellularly and extracellularly during DC/PLGA MP coculture, which is postulated to be the primary agent behind the observed immune inhibition. This hypothesis is supported by our results demonstrating that resistance to LPS stimulation may be due to the ability of PLGA MP-derived lactic acid to inhibit the phosphorylation of TAK1 and therefore prevent NF-κB activation.